References

The acoustic weaknesses of the Bell vowel model

References

Atkinson, Harold W. 1898. Methods of mouth-mapping. Die Neueren Sprachen 6:494-503.
Bell, A. Graham. 1879. Vowel theories. American Journal of Otolaryngology 1:July. Also reprinted in his Mechanism of Speech, 2nd edn. 1907 or later.
Bell, Alexander M. 1867. Visible Speech. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.
Chiba, Tsutomu, and Kajiyama, Masato. 1941. The Vowel, its Nature and Structure. Tokyo: Tokyo-Kaiseikan. Reprinted 1958, Tokyo, Phonetic Society of Japan.
Crandall, Irving B. 1927. Dynamical study of of the vowel sounds. Bell System Technical Journal 6:100-116.
Fant, C. Gunnar M. 1960. The Acoustic Theory of Speech Production. The Hague: Mouton.
Fant, C. Gunnar M. 1965. Formants and cavities. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Basel, Karger, pp. 120-141.
Fant, C. Gunnar M. 1980. The relation between area functions and the acoustic signal. Phonetica 37:55-86.
Grandgent, C. H. 1890. Vowel measurements. Publications of the Modern Languages Association of America 5:148-174.
Helmholtz, Hermann L. F. 1863. Die Lehre von der Tonempfindungen. Braunschweig. (English translation of the 4th German edition by A. J. Ellis, 1885, On the Sensation of Tone, London, Longman).
Joos, Martin. 1948. Acoustic Phonetics. Language Monograph 23, supplement to Language 24.
Lindblom, Björn E. M. and Sundberg, Johan. 1971. Acoustical consequences of lip, tongue, jaw and larynx movements. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 50:1166-1179.
Lloyd, Richard J. 1890-92. Speech Sounds, their Nature and Causation. Phonetische Studien 3-5. This serialized treatise incorporated Lloyd’s book (1990), Some Researches into the Nature of Vowel-Sound, Liverpool, Turner & Dunnett.
Paget, Richard. 1922. Vowel Resonances. London: The International Phonetic Association.
Paget, Richard. 1930. Human Speech. London: Kegan Paul.
Pipping, Hugo. 1893. Review of Lloyd, R. J. (1890, 1890-92). Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Litteratur 15:157-171.
Rayleigh, Baron (John W. Strutt). 1877-79. The Theory of Sound. 2 Vols. London: MacMillan.
Roudet, Léonce. 1911. La classification des voyelles de M. Sweet. Revue de Phonétique 1:347-356.
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Stevens, Kenneth N. 1972. The quantal nature of speech: evidence from acoustic-articulatory data. In David, E. E. and Denes, P. B. (eds), Human Communication, a Unified View, pp. 51-66 .
Stevens, Kenneth N. and House, Arthur S. 1961. An acoustical theory of vowel production and some of its implications. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 4:303-320.
Stevens, Kenneth N, Kasowski, S. and Fant, G. 1953. An electrical analog of the vocal tract. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 25:734.
Wood, Sidney. 1978. Tongue retraction is not so useful after all. Working Papers 16::173-179. Department of Linguistics, University of Lund.
Wood, Sidney. 1979. A radiographic analysis of constriction locations for vowels. Journal of Phonetics 7:25-43.
Wood, Sidney. 1986. The acoustical significance of tongue, lip and larynx maneuvers in rounded palatal vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 80, 391-401.
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©Sidney Wood and SWPhonetics, 1994-2013
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