X-ray movie

Example: a short sequence from an X-ray motion film

This is a short sequence where a speaker of English is saying [i’po:], broken out from a longer sequence. This example is illustrated with every other film frame, so there is 26ms between each picture. However, the movements were analysed from every frame in the sequence.

The example starts where the speaker has just reached the posture for [i] and ends where the speaker has just reached the posture for [o]. In between, he moved the tongue body from the [i] posture to the [o] posture, while closing and opening the lips for [p]. The informant started rounding the lips for [o] during the [p] occlusion. Towards the end he depressed the mandible and the larynx for [o].

Each articulator movement has been assigned to each phone, and colour-coded for ease of identification: orange for [i], green for [p], and blue for [o].

  • Picture 1: The tongue body gesture towards the hard palate for [i] is just arriving.
  • Picture 2: The tongue body posture for [i] is still being held along the hard palate; lip approximation for [p] has just started.
  • Picture 3: Lip approximation for [p] continues; the tongue body gesture towards the upper pharynx for [o] has just started, moving away from the palatal [i] posture.

  • Picture 4: Lip approximation for [p] has just arrived at occlusion; the tongue body gesture towards the upper pharynx for [o] continues; lip protrusion for [o] has just commenced during the [p] occlusion; larynx depression for [o] has just commenced.
  • Picture 5: Lip approximation for [p] occlusion continuesthe tongue body gesture towards the upper pharynx continues for [o]; lip protrusion for [o] continues; larynx depression for [o] continues.
  • Picture 6: Withdrawal of lip approximation for [p] has just commenced; the tongue body gesture towards the upper pharynx continues for [o]; lip protrusion for [o] continues; larynx depression for [o] continues; mandible depression for [o] commences.

  • Picture 7: Withdrawal of lip approximation for [p] continues; the tongue body gesture towards the upper pharynx continues for [o]; lip protrusion for [o] continues; larynx depression for [o] continues; mandible depression for [o] continues.
  • Picture 8: Withdrawal of lip approximation for [p] continues and is almost complete; the tongue body gesture towards the upper pharynx continues for [o]; lip protrusion for [o] continues; larynx depression for [o] continues; mandible depression for [o] continues.
  • Picture 9: The tongue body gesture towards the upper pharynx continues for [o] and is just arriving; lip protrusion for [o] continues and is just arriving; larynx depression for [o] continues and is just arriving; mandible depression for [o] continues and is just arriving.

Subsequent frames (not included here) show withdrawal of the [o] gestures together with commencement of tongue body and tongue blade movement for the [t] that follows this example.

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© Sidney Wood and SWPhonetics, 1994-2012