Articulator manoeuvres

Articulator manoeuvres

  1. Introduction
  2. Lip protrusion
  3. Lip approximation
  4. Mandible depression
  5. Tongue blade elevation
  6. Larynx depression
  7. Tongue body
    1. Palatal posture
    2. Velar posture
    3. Pharyngovelar posture
    4. Low pharyngeal posture

Top

1. Introduction

  • See also Tracking movement for movement tracking procedure from the X-ray motion films.
  • Speech is produced by organized movement of various parts of the mouth and throat (speech articulators) in order to create a continuously changing acoustic filter of the airway (or vocal tract) that shapes the basic buzzing or hissing sounds made while we speak. An example:
    • The two lips, attached to the maxilla and mandible respectively
      • Protrusion rounds the lip opening for vowels like [u, o] etc
      • Approximation brings the lips directly together for [p, b, m] etc
      • Spreading stretches and flattens the lip opening for vowels like [i] etc
  • Each articulator movement is characterized by three phases:
    • The approach, when it is moved towards the objective posture or position
    • The hold, when the posture is maintained, very briefly or for a longer period
    • The withdrawal, when it is moved away again

The following pictures illustrate these articulator movements.

Top

2. Lip protrusion

Lower lip turning outwards with respect to the mandible.

Top

3. Lip approximation

Upper lip approach, with respect to the maxilla, directly towards the lower lip.

Top

4. Mandible depression

 
Mandibular approach with respect to the maxilla

Top

5. Tongue blade elevation

Tongue blade approach for [d] with respect to the tongue body. In this example it is combined with a tongue body withdrawal from the velar posture of a previous [u].

Top

6. Larynx depression

Larynx depression
Larynx depression approach with respect to the maxilla and pharynx

Top

7. Tongue body

Composite picture of the hold phase of the four tongue body postures with respect to the mandible, constricting (a) the palatal passage,  (b) the velar passage, (c) the upper pharynx, (d) the lower pharynx

Top

7.A. Palatal posture

Hold phase of the palatal posture.
The tongue body has to be pushed up by drawing the posterior part forward (widening the pharynx behind the tongue).
Four palatal tongue body postures, with respect to the mandible, all widening the pharynx and narrowing the palatal passage.
  1. Subject: Cairo Arabic
  2. Note that there is one common mandible position in this drawing. The mandible is really lower for the second and fourth profiles

Top

7.B. Velar posture

Hold phase of the velar posture.
  1. The tongue body is drawn up to the back of the mouth and top of the pharynx.
  2. The location of the constriction along the velum is fixed by the palatoglossal sphincter.
  3. The lower posterior part of the tongue is drawn forward, widening the lower pharynx.
Two velar tongue body postures, with respect to the mandible, both widening the pharynx and narrowing the velar passage.
  1. Subject: Cairo Arabic
  2. Note that there is one common mandible position in this drawing. This is negligeable for this example.

Top

7.C. Pharyngovelar posture

Hold phase of the pharyngovelar posture.
  1. The tongue body is drawn up to the back of the mouth and top of the pharynx.
  2. The location of the constriction in the upper pharynx is fixed by the superior pharyngeal constrictor.
  3. The lower posterior part of the tongue is drawn forward slightly, widening the lower pharynx below the constriction.
Two pharyngovelar tongue body postures, with respect to the mandible, both narrowing the pharynx.
  1. Subject: Cairo Arabic
  2. Note that there is one common mandible position in this drawing. This is negligeable for this example. But the lips are really less rounded for the second profile (not illustrated).
Pharyngovelar approach for [ʀ] (blue) simultaneously with withdrawal from previous [y] (red).
  1. The numbers refer to image frames on the X-ray motion film.
  2. Subject: South Swedish. Extract from /’fy:ra/ (four), [fy:ʀa]
  3. Traditionally considered to be uvular, this tongue body manoeuvre for [ʀ] is the same as that for [o], i.e. constricting the upper pharynx.
  4. This example continues in the next picture
Continuing from previous picture.
Final pharyngovelar tongue body hold for [ʀ] (blue). Pharyngovelar withdrawal from [r] and low pharyngeal approach for upcoming [a] (yellow). Simultaneous final lip protrusion withdrawal from [y] (red).
  1. The numbers refer to image frames on the X-ray motion film.
  2. Subject: South Swedish. Extract from /’fy:ra/ (four), [fy:ʀa]

Top

7.D. Low pharyngeal posture

Hold phase of the low pharyngeal posture.
  1. The tongue body is drawn down into the lower pharynx.
  2. The location of the constriction in the lower pharynx is fixed by the middle pharyngeal constrictor.
Three low pharyngeal tongue body postures, with respect to the mandible, all narrowing the lower pharynx and widening the palatal passage.
  1. Subject: Cairo Arabic
  2. Note that there is one common mandible position in this drawing. This is negligeable for this example.
  3. The articulatory difference between these three vowel timbres is the degree of constriction in the lower pharynx
Top
©Sidney Wood and SWPhonetics, 1994-2013
Advertisements